One of the most crucial building materials, cement, is a binding agent that sets and hardens to cling to structural components like stones, bricks, and tiles. A very fine powdery substance known as cement is often composed of limestone (calcium), sand or clay (silicon), bauxite (aluminum), and iron ore, though it can also contain other materials like shells, chalk, marl, shale, clay, blast furnace slag, and slate. In cement manufacturing facilities, the raw materials are transformed and heated to create a rock-hard substance, which is then ground into a fine powder to be sold. When cement and water are combined, a chemical reaction occurs that creates a paste that sets and hardens to bond the various building ingredients together.
A crucial component of the urban infrastructure is cement. It is used to bind the construction blocks together to secure the infrastructure and to manufacture mortar and concrete. Mortar is formed of cement, water, and lime aggregate, whereas concrete is made of cement, water, sand, and gravel blended in certain quantities. Both of these are utilized to create beautiful patterns, fill or seal any gaps, and bind pebbles, stones, bricks, and other building components. Water-repellant hardened mass created by mixing cement with water silicates and aluminates is used for waterproofing.
Types of cement & grades commonly used –
Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) – Grade 43/ Grade 53
Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) – Grade 43/ Grade 53